English Leaflets

‘Attention deficit (ADD)’, ‘attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)', ‘hyperkinetic disorder' and ‘hyperactivity' are various terms used by people and professionals. These differences in terminology can sometimes cause confusion. All the above terms describe the problems of children who are hyperactive and have difficulty concentrating.

Depression is very common - one in five people become depressed at some point in their lives. Anyone can get low, but someone is said to be suffering from depression when these feelings don’t go away quickly or become so bad they interfere with their everyday life.

A sudden illness, an accident or an assault, or a natural disaster - these are all traumatic experiences which can upset and distress us. They arouse powerful and disturbing feelings in us which usually settle in time, without any professional help.

It is a condition which affects thinking, feeling and behaviour and causes people to have abnormal experiences. It is most likely to start between the ages of 15 to 35 and will affect about 1 in every 100 people during their lifetime.

We can all be obsessive about certain things at times, but if: you get awful thoughts coming into your mind, even when you try to keep them out; you have to touch or count things or repeat the same action like washing over and over you may have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

Learning disability used to be known as mental handicap or mental retardation. Other terms sometimes used are general or global developmental delay. A child with a general learning disability finds it more difficult to learn, understand and do things compared to other children of the same age. Like all children and young people, children with learning disabilities continue to progress and learn throughout their childhood - but more slowly.

10-15 in every 100 women become depressed after having a baby. This means you have a low mood and other symptoms for at least 2 weeks, and may last for weeks or months.

All parents upset their children sometimes. Saying ‘no’ and managing difficult behaviour is an essential part of parenting. Tired or stressed parents can lose control and can do or say something they regret, and may even hurt the child. If severe or if it this happens often, it can seriously harm the child. That is why abuse is defined in law.

We all tend to get more forgetful as we get older. But dementia is different. It is a brain disease which often starts with memory problems, but goes on to affect many other parts of the brain, producing: difficulty coping with day-to-day tasks, difficulty communicating, changes in mood, judgment or personality.

Anxiety is the feeling of fear that we get when faced with threatening or difficult situations. It is a normal response when faced with danger as it makes us more alert and gives us energy to deal with problems. But if the anxiety is too strong or is there all the time, then it can be a real problem. Anxiety disorders affect about 1 in 10 people.

Autism is the central condition in the group of difficulties known as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). For simplicity, we will use the term ASD. They are neurodevelopmental disorders –which means they are caused by abnormalities in the way the brain develops and works.

All children have moments when they do not behave properly. They can go through different phases as they develop and become more independent. Toddlers and adolescents can have their challenging moments and this might mean they push limits from time to time. With the help of parents, carers and teachers, most of them will learn to behave appropriately.

Bereavement is our experience of grief when someone we care about has died. It isn't just one feeling but a range of different emotions. We feel them most in the months – often up to 2 years, sometimes longer – after the death.

For many of us, cannabis is a way to relax – 2 million people in the UK smoke it and half of all 16 to 29 year olds have tried it. But research suggests that it can cause problems in some vulnerable people.

Bipolar disorder is a condition in which your mood can swing very high, or very low, for weeks or months. It used to be called Manic Depression.